Crafting is a main feature of survival mode that requires the combination of resources to create new things.
In the inventory, the player has a small 2 by 2 crafting area, which can be used to craft simple items. In order to get a large, 3 by 3 crafting area, the player must craft a crafting table (See below).
2 by 2 Crafting area
This is the crafting area every player has at all times, found in the survival inventory.
This is the crafting recipe for how to create a crafting table. On the left, 4 wooden planks have been placed in the 2 by 2 crafting area. They combine to create the crafting table, which can be dragged from the output on the right.
3 by 3 Crafting area
If you place a crafting table into the world and shift-click it, you will see a 3x3 grafting grid. This allows the player to make all craft recipes in Mine Blocks, as opposed to only the ones that fit in a 2 by 2 crafting space.